How Does a LED Light Bulb Work?
An LED light bulb has hundreds of individual diodes that produce nearly infinity of colours. A semiconductor material called an LED is enclosed in a small epoxy lens casing. These diodes are placed in an array to improve the light output and power consumption. These LEDs can be arranged to cast wide-angle illumination, allowing for a wider angle of view. This arrangement makes LEDs possible in a light bulb with a large power capacity.
LEDs are remarkably bright, so they need a lens to spread the light evenly. An LED lens resembles a traditional light bulb, and is often made of plastic to reduce the likelihood of breaking. To further increase the lifespan of the LED, a heat sink is placed under each LED chip. Heat must be conducted away from the LED to avoid damage, and a heat sink provides this path. As the LEDs are becoming more efficient, the heat they produce is lower.
LEDs use a semiconductor that is called a p-n junction to create a photon. These semiconductors contain a very high energy level. Because they are unstable, it is difficult to make these types of junctions. The best way to do this is to use a material called gallium nitride. Gallium nitride is not very durable, and a p-n junction is necessary to produce a good LED.